Summit of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation – Background Guide

Topic I: Examining methods to end Islamophobia, taking into account the role of Islamic extremism, the media, and diversity within Islam

I. Introduction to the Topic

     A. GENERAL BACKGROUND

Intolerance to Islam is hardly a new phenomenon, but some argue it is getting worse. Starting in the 1970s, Western mass media started portraying Arabs as villains and conflating Arab and Muslim identities (Buehler, 641). These stereotypes led individuals, and particularly Westerners, to perceive Islam as the “other.” Samuel Huntington took these perceptions a step further by predicting an inevitable “Clash of Civilizations” between the West and Islam (Hungtington, 29-30). Public animosity and fear of Islam intensified in the wake of the September 11th,2001 terrorist attacks on the United States.

Ever since the word, “Islamophobia”, first appeared in print in 1991 (Iqbal, 90), defining this term involved more than a simple dissection of its root. The term means more than a phobia toward Islam; this fear drives feelings of hatred that justify offensive actions toward Islam and its practitioners (Iqbal, 91). This force has motivated individuals to burn Qur’ans, visually depict and insult the Prophet Muhammad, and discriminate against Muslims as well as those perceived to be Muslim or Arab.

     B. HISTORY OF THE TOPIC IN THE ARAB WORLD

Acts of Muslim discrimination affect its victims regardless of where they occur. This discrimination can take the form of, among other manifestations, workplace bias, vandalism, random violence, and negative media representation. Furthermore, there is often little legal recourse available to those targeted because of their perceived belief in Islam. While the 2012 movie trailer, Innocence of Muslims, was shot in the U.S., it nonetheless incited violent protests across the Arab and Muslim world (Walsh). Other recent instances include the 2011 Norway attacks, which Anders Behring Breivik committed in response to European governments’ embrace of Islam through immigration reform and adoption of multicultural policies. Thus, even though Islamophobic acts seem to be accelerating in recent years, this is not a new issue.

Since the end of the Cold War, Western media has replaced communism with Islam as the West’s new enemy (Abu Sway, 18). Some argue the U.S. government manipulates the media in order to manufacture consent for its Israel policies (Buehler, 642). However, the media brought renewed focus to this topic post-9/11. Opposition to the construction of a mosque on Ground Zero only signalled its beginning. Since then, examples of anti-Muslim sentiments abound. In 2005, a series of offensive drawings of Muhammad appeared in a major Demark newspaper. Also, hijab bans have taken effect in France, Germany, and Sri Lanka among others (Abu Sway, 19). Even though Islamophobic incidents occur predominantly in the West, discrimination of Islam can occur anywhere with a Muslim minority.

     C. FINDING A SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE

The OIC’s Islamophobia Observatory has monitored and responded to discrimination against Muslims since its founding five years ago. The body addresses issues such as bias in the media, destruction of Muslim relics and mosques, political campaigns against Islam, and hijab bans (Organization of Islamic Countries, OIC, “Fifth OIC Observatory Report on Islamophobia”). While the Observatory reports mostly recount Islamophobic incidents initiated by Westerners, it examines these issues in non-Western nations such as Israel, Afghanistan, and Russia as well (OIC, “Fifth OIC Observatory on Islamophobia”). The Observatory organizes education initiatives and conferences promoting inter-faith dialogue.

The organization also calls the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to establish a similar international observatory. Its purpose will be to warn states about discriminatory acts so that states can more easily fulfill their responsibilities outlined in International Human Rights Law (Cairo Final Communiqué of the Twelfth Session of the Islamic Conference, “The Muslim World: New Challenges & Expanding Opportunities”). Even if the UN establishes this observatory, the OIC will still need to work on ways to promote inter-faith harmony.

II. Questions to Consider in Your Research

  • How has discrimination of Islam affected my state?
  • What actions has the OIC already taken against Islamophobia? What have been its main challenges while addressing this issue?
  • What religions and sects are represented in my state? Is there violence between religious groups?
  • How has my state managed Islamophobia in the past?

III. Questions a Resolution Might Answer

  • What are ways to promote Islam without ostracizing members of other faiths?
  • Which organizations should the OIC involve with the promotion of Islam?
  • How can the OIC influence the media and education to better reflect Islam?
  • How might the OIC overcome its past challenges?

IV. Resources to Review

  • Cairo Final Communiqué of the Twelfth Session of the Islamic Conference. “The Muslim World: New Challenges & Expanding Opportunities.” Cairo, Egypt. (February 6-7, 2013): 1-27.
  • Organization of Islamic Countries. “Fifth OIC Observatory Report on Islamophobia: May 2011 to September 2012.” Presented to the 39th Council of Foreign Ministers, Republic of Djibouti. (November 15-17, 2012): 1-92. Organization of Islamic Countries, “Islamophobia Observatory,” http://www.oic-oci.org/page_detail.asp?p_id=182 (accessed June 25, 2013).

V. Citations

  • Arthur F. Buehler. “Islamophobia: A Projection of the West’s ‘Dark Side,’” Islam and Civilisational Renewal 2, no. 4 (July 2011): 641.
  • Samuel P. Huntington. “The Clash of Civilizations?” Foreign Affairs 72, no. 1 (Summer 1993): 29-30.
  • Zafar Iqbal. “Islamophobia or Islamophobias: Towards Developing A Process Model,” Islamic Studies 49, no. 1 (Spring 2010): 90.
  • Walsh, Declan. “19 Reported Dead as Pakistanis Protest Mohammed Video,” The New York Times, September 21, 2012.
  • Mustafa Abu Sway, “Islamophobia: Meaning, Manifestations, Causes,” Palestine-Israel Journal 12, no. 2&3, 18.
  • Organization of Islamic Countries, “Fifth OIC Observatory Report on Islamophobia: May 2011 to September 2012,” Presented to the 39th Council of Foreign Ministers, Republic of Djibouti, (November 15-17, 2012).
  • Organization of Islamic Countries, “Islamophobia Observatory,” http://www.oic-oci.org/page_detail.asp?p_id=182 (accessed June 25, 2013).
  • Cairo Final Communiqué of the Twelfth Session of the Islamic Conference, “The Muslim World: New Challenges & Expanding Opportunities,” Cairo, Egypt, (February 6-7, 2013): 19.

Topic II: Discussing the impact of terrorism in the Islamic world, including intergovernmental security collaboration as well as diplomatic and political approaches

I. Introduction to the Topic

     A. GENERAL BACKGROUND

The word “terrorism” has only been in the western languages since the French Revolution. In modern times, we find it difficult to define exactly what sort of action is classified as a terrorist deed; many of the governmental organizations around the world have their own definition of “terrorism”. Throughout the past two centuries, acts of a violent nature, which are considered “terroristic”, have been committed by people of all nationalities, religions, and ideologies. The international community is often conflicted as to which groups should be labeled as terrorist organizations and this often causes tension between some countries. For instance, while the US has labeled Hezbollah a terrorist organization, the EU refuses to do so. As terrorism is transnational in nature, states chose to cooperate with each other to combat terrorism. Since many of the modern groups labeled as terrorist organization claim to be fighting in the name of Islam, the OIC member states have often come together to combat terrorism and to cooperate with other states internationally.

     B. HISTORY OF THE TOPIC IN THE ARAB WORLD

In the aftermath of 9/11, terrorism has become synonymous with the Middle East and with Islam. Many governmental entities, including Hamas, Hezbollah, The Muslim Brotherhood, have been deemed terrorist groups by other nations (“Foreign Terrorist Organizations”). Starting in the early 1990’s, many organizations centered in the Arab and Islamic World began cooperating to combat terrorism.

In 1998, all League of Arab States members signed a counter-terrorism accord (“Arab League Accord to Fight Terrorism”). While the accord outlined common norms and values, it did not discuss ways to build a common counter – terrorism apparatus nor did it outline ways to arrive at common judicial rules regarding terrorism or a common judicial institution for counter terrorism (“The International Institute for Counter Terrorism”). The following year the Organization of Islamic Countries held their conference and created their own counter-terrorism own guide lines (“OIC Convention to Combat Terrorism”). Similar to the LAS accord, the OIC convention did not create institutions or common rules, but instead outlined common goals and values, relying on individual member states to cooperate. The Gulf Cooperation Council has also undertaken its own counter-terrorism initiatives (“GCC Countries Sign Landmark Counterterrorism Agreement”). The six GCC member states signed a “comprehensive pact” in 2004 which called for increased cooperation among security agencies, monitoring borders and improving the exchange of intelligence and information.

     C. FINDING A SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE

The OIC has held conferences specifically to discuss ways of combating terrorism. The organization addressed actions taken by people that would not fall under their definition of terrorism. They generated preventative and combative measures, as well as, outlined the cooperative measures of fighting against terrorists within the OIC. The OIC has been working with the UN to combat terrorism since 2008 (“Final Document of General Meeting on Cooperation Between the United Nations and the Organization of the Islamic Conference”). However, the definition of terrorism is still broad and the OIC might have more success combating terrorism if all member states agreed on a specific definition that included religiously motivated terrorism, while at the same time does not contradict the support of some Arab states of terrorism against Israel (Paz). If a common definition is established then countries would not be able support some groups while opposing others. Despite the conference and despite often discussing the impact of terrorism, the OIC has not established guidelines for counter-terrorism cooperation. There are no treaties that define extradition rules, intelligence sharing, security cooperation, border control or common counter – terrorism judicial practices. Furthermore, there is little coordination between the OIC and other overlapping regional organizations. For instance, as outlined above, the League of Arab States and the GCC have undertaken their own counter-terrorism initiatives but have not necessarily coordinated their plans with other OIC member states.

II. Questions to Consider in Your Research

  • Does your country have its own definition of terrorism?
  • What counter-terrorism measures has your country adopted?
  • Does your country have any groups that are labeled as terrorist organizations by other states? How does your country see those same groups; has it also labeled them as terrorist groups or does it seem them as political organizations?
  • How has terrorism affected your country?

III. Questions A Resolution Might Address

  • How should member states cooperate to combat terrorism?
  • What kinds of intelligence sharing mechanisms are needed?
  • Should there be common judicial responses to terrorism?
  • Should there be a common counter-terrorism security force?
  • How should borders be monitored to prevent the movement of terrorism and weapons across member states?
  • How can we combat transnational terrorism while still respecting the sovereignty of individual member states?

IV. Resources to Review

  • OIC Convention to Combat Terrorism: http://www.oicun.org/7/38/
  • United Nations anti-terrorist measures http://www.un.org/en/terrorism/strategy-counter-terrorism.shtml
  • Daniel Benjamin, “Strategic Counter-Terrorism” Brookings Institute
    http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/papers/2008/10/terrorism%20benjamin/10_terrorism_benjamin.pdf
  • State Department, Country Reports on Terrorism Middle East and North Africa: http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2012/209982.htm
  • “Final Document of General Meeting on Cooperation Between the United Nations and the Organization of the Islamic Conference”: http://www.oicun.org/uploads/files/un-oic/oic-un-08.pdf

V. Citations

  • State Department, “Foreign Terrorist Organizations” http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/other/des/123085.htm
  • “Arab League Accord to Fight Terrorism”, http://212.150.54.123/articles/arb_accord.htm
  • “The International Institute for Counter Terrorism”, http://212.150.54.123/articles/arb_accord.htm
  • “OIC Convention to Combat Terrorism”, http://www.oicun.org/7/38/
  • Arab News “GCC Countries Sign Landmark Counterterrorism Agreement”, http://www.arabnews.com/node/248835
  • “Final Document of General Meeting on Cooperation Between the United Nations and the Organization of the Islamic Conference” http://www.oicun.org/uploads/files/un-oic/oic-un-08.pdf, page 8.
  • Reuven Paz, “The Prospect of Arab Cooperation for Counter Terrorism” http://212.150.54.123/articles/articledet.cfm?articleid=86

Topic III: Addressing human rights in the occupied Palestinian territories with special regard for refugees, governance, economic freedoms, and education

I. Introduction to the Topic

     A. DEFINITIONS RELATED to the TOPIC

The State of Palestine (Occupied Palestinian Territories): In 1993, following the Oslo accords, the West Bank, East Jerusalem and the Gaza strip were placed under the political jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority. Collectively, they became known as the Palestinian territories. In November of 2012, the United Nations voted to recognize the Palestinian Territories as a Palestinian State (UN News Centre).

West bank: The west bank is an area of 5,628 square kilometers. The West Bank is partially administered by the Israeli government and partially by the Palestinian Authority. Since 1967, the West Bank has been under the jurisdiction of the Israeli Civil Administration. The goal of the Oslo Accords was to eventually transfer all authority over the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the Palestinian Authority. However, negotiations to determine the permanent status of the West Bank and Gaza stalled following the outbreak of the Second Intifada in September 2000 (“The West Bank”).

Gaza Strip (sometimes just “Gaza”): The Gaza Strip is a self-governing entity that is part of the Palestinian territories. Hamas gained de-facto control of Gaza after winning the elections in 2007.

Palestinian Authority: The Palestinian Authority (PA) is the governing body of the Palestinian territories, now the State of Palestine. The PA was created during the Oslo accords of 1993. The PA represents Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza (“What is ‘The Palestinian Authority’?”). Mahmoud Abbas is the president of the Palestinian Authority.

     B. GENERAL BACKGROUND

Israel still maintains military, political and economic power over Palestine. As part of this control, Israel has committed many human violations against the Palestinian people. These violations have included: home demolitions, forced eviction of Palestinian families, punitive arrests, unfair trials, ill-treatment of detainees as well as the use of restrictive legal means. Furthermore, the wall built around the Occupied Territories allowed Israel to build settlements and restrict the movement of Palestinians (“Israel/ Occupied Palestinian Territories: Human Rights Concerns”). Despite being technically administered by the Palestinian Authority, Israel still affects key aspects of the State of Palestinian.

     B. HISTORY OF THE TOPIC IN THE ARAB WORLD

Education, governance, economic freedom and refugees have been subject to Israeli control and restrictions since the creation of the State of Israel. The worse conditions are to be found in Gaza as the blockade, which restricts the movement of people as well as the entry or exit of good and services, has exacerbated the already dire humanitarian situation.

Education in the State of Palestine: Low salaries for teachers have historically led teachers in the Occupied Territories to take on extra jobs, which negatively impacts the quality of teaching. There is also a history of violence and attacks against schools in Gaza, the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Israeli forces have been known to enter classrooms and remove any signs of Palestinian nationalism. Schools are also often damaged by the fighting around them which causes them to close for long periods of times (“Occupied Palestinian Territory including East Jerusalem, and Israel”). Palestinian schools often suffer from discrimination in funding allocation while Israeli schools receive more funding. This means that classrooms are overcrowded and cannot accommodate all students. The drop-out rate amongst Palestinian students is much higher than among Israelis (“Education Suffers in East Jerusalem”). Another problem with education is the ability to physically access schools because of restriction of movement. Teachers and pupils who hold West Bank ID cards face difficulties accessing schools in East Jerusalem because of permit restrictions, checkpoints and the Western wall. This is especially problematic as a large percentage of teachers and students have to cross checkpoints every day to access their school (“Challenges to Education in East Jerusalem”). These restrictions affect students and teachers at all levels of education.

Governance: Governance of the Occupied Territories began in the diaspora community as refugee and their descendants called for self-governance of the Palestinians. The Palestinian national movement regrouped in the West Bank, Gaza and in neighboring Arab countries. The Palestinian Liberation Organization emerged as its umbrella group and in 1974 the League of Arab States recognized the Palestinian Liberation Organization as the sole representative of the Palestinian people (“Text of the Seventh Arab League Summit”). In 1993, as a result of the Oslo Accords, the Palestinian Authority was created and was given political administration of the Occupied Territories. The PA has had a difficult time governing the area due to divisions within the leading Fatah party, Hamas, and struggles with the Israeli regime. In 2007 the PA lost de-facto control of Gaza to Hamas. Despite the PA’s authority, Israel still retains control over bypass roads, settlements, airspace and sea front (“Palestinian Territory Profile”). Even though the PA succeeded in its bid for Palestinian statehood in 2012, the organization still suffers from internal divisions, lack of legitimacy, and the inability to make substantive reforms (“Who Governs the West Bank? Palestinian Administration under Israeli Occupation”).

Economy: The Palestinian economy often suffers as a result of blockades, punitive measurements by the Israeli government, international divisions, and insufficient donor funds. For example, in 2013, Israel withheld the taxes it collects on behalf of the Palestinian authority to punish Palestinians for pursuing UN statehood. The PA relies on those funds for its operation budget. As a result of such punitive measures, employees in the West Bank and Gaza have gone through periods of not receiving full wages for months. The official economy of the state also relies heavily on foreign donors (“Palestinians to Receive Payments, Israel Says”). If donors do not fulfill their pledges, salaries go unpaid and services are not rendered, especially as public sector spending usually drives growth in the Palestinian state. Gaza suffers from substantially high unemployment rates as a result of the blockage. Increased restrictions on the movement of people and goods make it hard for the PA to overcome political obstacles to growth. As a result of the blockade on the Gaza strip, 98% of industrial operations have been shut down. The important ban on building materials also makes it difficult to rebuild the economy. The majority of the population is poor, unemployed and relying on UNRWA services (“OPT: West Bank health and economy up a bit, Gaza Down”).

Refugees: According to the United Nations Relief Works Agency (UNRWA), refugees are people whose normal place of residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948, who lost both their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict (“Palestine Refugees”). As of the end of 2012, there were about 144,500 people in protracted displacement across the Occupied Palestinian Territory. Internal displacement is both a consequence and a cause of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict (“The State of Palestine: No end to internal displacement”). The West Bank has around 771,000 registered refugees living in 19 camps administered by UNRWA. Some camps are located in zones controlled by Israel while others are in areas controlled by the PA. UNRWA provides all the services in the camps, but NGOs, international organizations and foreign donors are also vital in ensuring that the needs of refugees are met (“West Bank camp Profiles”). There are more than 1.1 million refugees in Gaza. More than half of the refugees in Gaza live in eight camps run by UNRWA. The blockade in Gaza has had devastating effects on refugees. The infrastructures in the camps are weak and water and electricity are not always available. According to URNWA’s 2001 date, 60 percent of refugees in Gaza were food insecure, but that number is expected to rise (“Gaza in 2020: UNRWA Operational Response May 2013”, page 6).

     C. FINDING A SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE

Finding a solution to these issues is complicated and will require creative thinking. Furthermore, a solution to any of these issues will require a comprehensive approach that includes all parties: Hamas, Fatah, The Palestinian Authority, Israel, and the international community. Solutions that that focus on building the infrastructure and capacity of the Palestinian state might prove more successful than earlier approaches.

In the past there have been many divisions amongst the political parties in Palestine and this has led to poor and ineffective governance. The League of Arab States has the capacity to work with the different political parties to promote a unified Palestinian Authority.

The Oslo Accords of 1993 have relegated the refugee issue to final status negotiations, meaning it will only be discussed after peace has been established. The refugee question has long been a roadblock to peace for both parties. The League of Arab States has the capacity to promote better conditions for refugees, negotiate more rights with the Israeli government and assist in integrating refugees into the local economy to reduce their dependency on foreign aid. Furthermore, the aid promised by the international community is seldom delivered and this severely affects the PA’s budget and ability to provide services to its people.

Despite the amount of aid provided to Palestinians, restrictions, punitive measurements and laws enforced by the Israel state will always hinder the growth of the Palestinian economy. Aid has not proven to be a viable solution. Solutions that involve collaborating with the State of Israel to ease restrictions and regulations, as well as those that increase the capacity and infrastructure of the Palestinian state might be more successful.

II. Questions to Consider in Your Research

  • What is the current governing structure of Palestinian Authority and how can it be improved?
  • How do other governments in the Arab league achieve legitimacy and unity? Are there any lessons that can help the Palestinian Authority?
  • How the Palestinian state lack the infrastructures of government? How can the capacity of the Palestinian people to govern themselves be improved?
  • How can treaties and trade agreements between Arab League member states improve the Palestinian economy?
  • How can aid money be used to implement sustainable development projects?
  • Does the League of Arab States have any avenues through which it can negotiate more lenient policies towards Palestinians, especially in terms of easing restrictions on employment and import and export of materials, goods and services?
  • What are the main challenges facing the education sector in the state Palestine? How can we assess the needs of the education sector?

III. Questions A Resolution Might Address

  • What actions can the council take to further the goal of improving the Palestinian economy?
  • Should the committee moves towards resolutions that focus on infrastructure and capacity building instead of aid and relief?
  • Can the committee promote fair elections that could increase the legitimacy of the Palestinian Authority?
  • How can the League present a united front in order to work with the Israelis to improve the conditions of refugees?
  • What education policies and teacher trainings programs can the League of Arab States champion in the State of Palestine?

IV. Resources to Review

  • “Gaza in 2020: UNRWA operational response”: http://www.unrwa.org/userfiles/2013070364659.pdf
  • International Crisis Group Full report, “Who Governs the West Bank? Palestinian Administration under Israeli Occupation”: http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/middle-east-north-africa/israel-palestine/032-who-governs-the-west-bank-palestinian-administration-under-israeli-occupation.aspx
  • Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, “Palestine: Economy, Challenges and Political Implications”: http://carnegieendowment.org/2012/03/27/palestine-economic-challenges-and-political-implications/a35m
  • H.E. Ms Cairo Arafat, “Successes and Challenges in Delivering ECCE in the Occupied Palestinian territory: The Harsh reality of childhood”: http://www.unesco.org/education/WCECCE/presentations/Cairo.pdf
  • Ecumenical Accompaniment Programme in Palestine and Israel (EAPPI), “Education under Occupation”: http://www.eappi.org/

V. Citations

  • UN News Centre, “General Assembly grants Palestine non-member observer State status at UN” http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=43640#.UeVXttLBNdc
  • Haaretz Newspaper, “The West Bank” http://www.haaretz.com/misc/tags/West%20Bank-1.477132
  • Institute for Middle East Understanding, “What is ‘The Palestinian Authority’?” http://imeu.net/news/article0047.shtml
  • Amnesty International, “Israel/ Occupied Palestinian Territories: Human Rights Concerns” http://www.amnestyusa.org/our-work/countries/middle-east-and-north-africa/israel-and-occupied-palestinian-territories
  • Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General For Children and Armed Conflict, “Occupied Palestinian Territory including East Jerusalem, and Israel” http://childrenandarmedconflict.un.org/countries/occupied-palestinian-territory-and-israel/
  • Jillian Kestler-DAmours, “Education Suffers in East Jerusalem” http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2012/09/201296102042473785.html
  • United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Occupied Palestinian Territory “Challenges to Education in East Jerusalem” http://www.ochaopt.org/annual/c6/4.html
  • Text of the Seventh Arab League Summit, http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/cahier/proche-orient/rabat74-en
  • “Palestinian Territory Profile” BBC News http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-14630174
  • International Crisis Group, “Who Governs the West Bank? Palestinian Administration under Israeli Occupation”, http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/middle-east-north-africa/israel-palestine/032-who-governs-the-west-bank-palestinian-administration-under-israeli-occupation.aspx
  • Ethan Bronner, “Palestinians to Receive Payments, Israel Says”, The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/01/world/middleeast/israel-releases-funds-to-palestinian-authority.html
  • Humanitarian News and Analysis, “OPT: West Bank health and economy up a bit, Gaza Down” http://www.irinnews.org/report/89169/opt-west-bank-health-and-economy-up-a-bit-gaza-down
  • United Nations Relief Works and Agency, “Palestine Refugees” http://www.unrwa.org/etemplate.php?id=86
  • Internal Displacement Monitoring Center , “The State of Palestine: No end to internal displacement”, http://www.internal-displacement.org/countries/opt
  • United Nations Relief Works and Agency, “West Bank camp Profiles”, http://www.unrwa.org/etemplate.php?id=103
  • UNRWA, “Gaza in 2020: UNRWA Operational Response May 2013” http://www.unrwa.org/userfiles/2013070364659.pdf, page 6.

Student Leadership Development Program from the National Council on US-Arab Relations